Computer Networks - Common Network Terms
In computer networks, a node is a connection point. It is a point in a network topology at which lines intersect or branch. A node is either a redistribution point or a communication endpoint. The definition of a node also a given protocol or agreed-upon language for transmitting data packets between the different machines. A physical network node is an active electronic device that is attached to a network, and is capable of sending, receiving, or forwarding information over a communications channel. In general, a node has programmed or engineered capability to recognize and process or forward transmissions to other nodes.Client
In Information Technology, a client is an application or system that accesses a remote service on server, by way of a network. Client is also refers as the user or requesting program in a client-server relationship. For example, the user of a Web browser is effectively making client requests for pages from servers all over the Web. The browser itself is a client in its relationship with the computer that is getting and returning the requested HTML file. The computer handling the request and sending back the HTML file is known as a server. Clients usually refer to the software that is the game in only multiplayer online games for the computer.
In computing, a server is a computer program that provides services to other computer programs (and their users) in the same or other computers. It is a combination of hardware or software designed to provide servers to clients. Also, a server is a computer program that provides services to other computer programs (and their users) in the same or other computers. Besides, the computer that a server program runs in is also frequently referred to as a server though it may be used for other purposes as well. When used alone, the term typically refers to a computer which may be running a server operating system but is also used to refer to any software or dedicated hardware capable of providing services.
In computer networks, hub is a common connection point for devices. Hubs are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN. A hub also contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all packets. There are a few types of hub. For example, a passive hub serves simply as a conduit for the data, enabling it to go from one device to another. An intelligent hub includes additional features that enables an administrator to monitor the traffic passing through the hub and to configure each port in the hub. Intelligent hubs are also referred as manageable hubs. Another type of hub is called a switching hub. It reads destination address of each packet and then forwards the packet to the correct port.
Network Interface Cards (NIC)
In Information Technology, a network interface card is usually referred to as a NIC. NIC is a device that installed in a computer so that it can be connected to a network. It allows computers to be joined together in a local area network, which is LAN. Networked computers communicate with each other using nodes. The network interface card acts as the liaison for the machine to both send and receive data on the LAN. It provides a dedicated, full-time connection to a network. For instance, personal computers and workstations on a local area network usually contain a network interface card specifically designed for the LAN transmission technology, such as Ethernet or Token Ring. A network operating system is the software that allows multiple computers to communicate, share files and hardware devices with one another. It contains components and programs that allow a computer on a network to serve requests from other computers for data and provide access to other resources such as printer and file systems. Network Operating System also helps people to build and run their own programs. Some examples of network operating systems that are used on personal computers include MAC OS X, Novell Netware, Microsoft Windows NT, Microsoft Windows 2000, Microsoft Windows XP, Sun Solaris, Linux, and etc.
A host computer in computing is the main or controlling computer which is connected to other computers or terminals to which it provides data or computing services via a network. It is a computer that is use to develop software for execution on another computer and to emulate another computer, also known as the target computer. In the modern peer to peer networking over the internet, every computer is a peer and also a host to every other computer connected to the network. It provides services other than simply acting as a store-and-forward processor or communication switch. A host computer at one level of a hierarchy may also function as a packet or message switch at another.
In computer networks, network manager is a set of co-operative tools that make networking simple and straightforward. Network Manager allows you to quickly move from one network to another regardless whether you are using wireless or wired. Network manager also acts as a service that manages connections and reports network changes and a graphical desktop applet which allows the user to manipulate network connections. It always ensures the network is protected from unauthorized users and is always responding to hardware and software malfunctions. Examples of network management products are IBM's NetView, HP's OpenView, Sun's SunNet Manager and Novell's NMS.